Mines & Mineral

Placer Gold

Prospective areas for gold on the basis of geochemical and statistical analysis includes Nowshera district, some parts of Charsadda and Swabi districts having catchments in Dargai ophiolites. Prospective areas for gold in Karak and Tank districts were also found which shows the potential of Siwalik sandstone and conglomerate for placer deposits.

The gold particles present in the pan-concentrates samples of Peshawar Basin (mainly Peshawar and Mardan disvisions) have been contributed by the Quaternary sediments brought by the Indus and Kabul rivers. However, the gold particles found in the pan-concentrates of the Karak, Kohat, Tank and D.I. Khan Districts appear to have a source in the paleo-placers of Siwalik rocks of the Kohat Plateau, Khisor, Marwat, and Bhittanni Ranges. The ultimate source of the paleo-placers of Siwalik Molasses seems to be in the Hinterland areas of Himalayas and in the Kohistan Island Arc.

The threshold value of each element in pan-concentrates are reported as 80 ppm for Copper (Cu), 40 ppm for Lead (Pb), 65 ppm for Zinc (Zn)    , 200 ppm for Nickel (Ni), 160 ppm for Chromium (Cr), 25 ppm for Carbon (Co), 4.5 ppm for Cadmium (cd), 450 ppm for Manganese (Mn), 6.8 ppm for Silver (Ag) and 2.5 ppm for Gold (Au). While in stream sediments these threshold values are set as 45 ppm for Copper (Cu), 17 ppm for Lead (Pb), 46 ppm for Zinc (Zn), 200 ppm for Nickel (Ni), 75 ppm for Chromium (Cr), 12 ppm for Carbon (Co), 5 ppm for Cadmium (Cd), 400 ppm for Manganese (Mn), 3.2 ppm for Silver (Ag) and 1 ppm for Gold (Au).

Emerald at Shamozai Swat

The oceanic crust belt of Swat emeralds, and its lateral extension towards Bajaur and Mohmand Agencies in the west, mark the site of suturing between

two continental plates, the Eurasian plate in the north and Indian mass in the south, once remained separated by an in between ocean, called Tethys. The collision of the two masses uplifted the crust into mountains and led to emplacement of emerald mineralization in rocks along suture zone called Main Mantle Thrust (MMT).

The Emerald – hosted rocks identified in Swat valley, extends for a linear distance of more than 50 km, from Shamozai in the west toward northeast as for as Shangla Par, covering the localities of Shamozai Mines, Mingora Mines, Charbagh, Malakand, Malamjaba and GujarKilli Mines.

The Shamozai Emerald Prospect is favourable for exploration and mining because of its geographical position.  The local relief is comparatively low and being in the vicinity of Mingora city, the accessibility and local infrastructure is a developed one. The Climatic conditions are all weather working while availability of manpower including skilled minerals is on very

reasonable wages. The local inhabitants are famous for hospitality. The area is worldwide known for emerald mining on the name of Swat Emerald, while geographic position is strategic, connecting the famous Silk Route with a trade route between South Asia and Central Asia.

Accordingly the Shamozai Emerald Prospect is divisible into Block A & B for resource estimation in term of million carats @ 8 carats per cubic meter is based on emerald grade of Mingora Mines, is given under:

 Tenement Block



 Carats in Million


 Carats in Million


 Carats in Million


Block A27.704.7841.3446.128
Block B48.031.7608.0009.760
G. Total75.736.5449.34415.888

Mines and Mineral Department is the concerned Provincial Department for the Mines and Mineral projects and it is on the way towards further development of the sector. Mineral Policy is also introduced with the aim to streamline the activities in the subject sector.

Metallic Mineral Blocks in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Nine metallic mineral blocks are available at different locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province.

Mines & Mineral Project